Unemployment, (re)employment & wellbeing: references

The full systematic review will be made available following publication in an academic journal. If people would like to be alerted when the full systematic review is available, they can email info@whatworkswellbeing.org.

Evidence Statement: Unemployment is damaging to people’s wellbeing regardless of their age, gender, level of education, ethnicity or part of the country in which they live. The longer the time unemployed, the worse the effect.

[1] Binder, M. and A. Coad, Heterogeneity in the Relationship Between Unemployment and Subjective Wellbeing: A Quantile Approach. Economica, 2015. 82(328): p. 865-891.

[2] Boyce, C.J., A.M. Wood, and G.D.A. Brown, The dark side of conscientiousness: Conscientious people experience greater drops in life satisfaction following unemployment. Journal of Research in Personality, 2010. 44(4): p. 535-539.

[3] Calvo, E., C.A. Mair, and N. Sarkisian, Individual Troubles, Shared Troubles: The Multiplicative Effect of Individual and Country-Level Unemployment on Life Satisfaction in 95 Nations (1981-2009). Social Forces, 2015. 93(4): p. 1625-1653.

[4] Carroll, N., Unemployment and Psychological Well-being. Economic Record, 2007. 83(262): p. 287-302.

[5] Chadi, A., How to Distinguish Voluntary from Involuntary Unemployment: On the Relationship between the Willingness to Work and Unemployment-Induced Unhappiness. Kyklos, 2010. 63(3): p. 317-329.

[6] Clark, A.E., Y. Georgellis, and P. Sanfey, Scarring: The Psychological Impact of Past Unemployment. Economica, 2001. 68(270): p. 221-241.

[7] Clark, A.E., Unemployment as a Social Norm: Psychological Evidence from Panel Data. Journal of Labor Economics, 2003. 21(2): p. 323-351.

[8] Clark, A.E., A Note on Unhappiness and Unemployment Duration. Applied Economics Quarterly, 2006. 52(4): p. 291-308.

[9] Dooley, D. and R. Catalano, Depression and unemployment: Panel findings from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 1994. 22(6): p. 745.

[10]       Flint, E., et al. Do labour market status transitions predict changes in psychological well-being? J Epidemiol Community Health, 2013. 67(9): p. 796-802.

[11] Gallo, W.T., et al., The Persistence of Depressive Symptoms in Older Workers Who Experience Involuntary Job Loss: Results From the Health and Retirement Survey. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 2006. 61B(4): p. S221-S228.

[12] Gathergood, J., An instrumental variable approach to unemployment, psychological health and social norm effects. Health Econ, 2013. 22(6): p. 643-54.

[13] Griep, Y., et al., Voluntary work and the relationship with unemployment, health, and well-being: a two-year follow-up study contrasting a materialistic and psychosocial pathway perspective. J Occup Health Psychol, 2015. 20(2): p. 190-204.

[14] Howe, G.W., et al., Higher-Order Structure in the Trajectories of Depression and Anxiety Following Sudden Involuntary Unemployment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2012. 121(2): p. 325-338.

[15] Kassenboehmer, S.C. and J.P. Haisken-DeNew, You’re Fired! The Causal Negative Effect of Entry Unemployment on Life Satisfaction. Economic Journal, 2009. 119(536): p. 448-462.

[16] Knabe, A., et al., Dissatisfied with Life but Having a Good Day: Time-use and Well-being of the Unemployed. Economic Journal, 2010. 120(547): p. 867-889.

[17] Krueger, A.B. and A.I. Mueller, Time Use, Emotional Well-Being, and Unemployment: Evidence from Longitudinal Data. American Economic Review, 2012. 102(3): p. 594-599.

[18] Mayer, F. and P.-M. Roy, La relation Chomage-sante: Une etude longitudinale. (Unemployment and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Analysis. With English summary.). Canadian Journal of Economics, 1991. 24(3): p. 551-562.

[19] Milner, A., et al., The role of social support in protecting mental health when employed and unemployed: A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 12 annual waves of the HILDA cohort. Soc Sci Med, 2016. 153: p. 20-26.

[20] Nagatomi, K., et al., Association between the transition from unemployment to re-employment after abrupt bankruptcy and the depressive symptoms. The Kurume medical journal, 2010. 57(3): p. 59-66.

[21] Powdthavee, N., What Childhood Characteristics Predict Psychological Resilience to Economic Shocks in Adulthood? Journal of Economic Psychology, 2014. 45: p. 84-101.

[22] Powdthavee, N., Jobless, Friendless and Broke: What Happens to Different Areas of Life Before and After Unemployment? Economica, 2012. 79(315): p. 557-575.

[23] Rodriguez, E., et al., Unemployment, depression, and health: A look at the African-American community. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1999. 53(6): p. 335-342.

[24] Schmitz, H., Why Are the Unemployed in Worse Health? The Causal Effect of Unemployment on Health. Labour Economics, 2011. 18(1): p. 71-78.

[25] Urbanos-Garrido, R.M. and B.G. Lopez-Valcarcel, The Influence of the Economic Crisis on the Association between Unemployment and Health: An Empirical Analysis for Spain. European Journal of Health Economics, 2015. 16(2): p. 175-184.

[26] van Hoorn, A. and R. Maseland, Does a Protestant work ethic exist? Evidence from the well-being effect of unemployment. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013. 91: p. 1-12.

Evidence Statements: People do not adapt to unemployment (their wellbeing is permanently reduced)

[27] Clark, A.E., et al., Lags and Leads in Life Satisfaction: A Test of the Baseline Hypothesis. Economic Journal, 2008. 118(529): p. F222-43.

[28] Georgellis, Y., et al., Unemployment and life satisfaction: a non-linear adaptation process. International Journal of Manpower, 2008. 29(7): p. 668-680.

[29] Hahn, E., et al., Coping With Unemployment: The Impact of Unemployment Duration and Personality on Trajectories of Life Satisfaction. European Journal of Personality, 2015. 29(6): p. 635-646.

[30] Lucas, R.E., et al., Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychol Sci, 2004. 15(1): p. 8-13.

[31] Oesch, D. and O. Lipps, Does Unemployment Hurt Less if There is More of it Around? A Panel Analysis of Life Satisfaction in Germany and Switzerland. European Sociological Review, 2013. 29(5): p. 955-967.

[32] Winkelmann, L. and R. Winkelmann, Why Are the Unemployed So Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data. Economica, 1998. 65(257): p. 1-15.

Evidence Statement: Gender matters. Men’s wellbeing is more affected by the incidence and duration of unemployment.

[33] Broman, C.L., et al., Race, gender, and the response to stress: autoworkers’ vulnerability to long-term unemployment. Am J Community Psychol, 1995. 23(6): p. 813-42.

[34] Clark, A.E., Unemployment as a Social Norm: Psychological Evidence from Panel Data. Journal of Labor Economics, 2003. 21(2): p. 323-351.

[35] Clark, A.E., Y. Georgellis, and P. Sanfey, Scarring: The Psychological Impact of Past Unemployment. Economica, 2001. 68(270): p. 221-241.

[36] Lucas, R.E., et al., Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychol Sci, 2004. 15(1): p. 8-13.

[37] Powdthavee, N., Jobless, Friendless and Broke: What Happens to Different Areas of Life Before and After Unemployment? Economica, 2012. 79(315): p. 557-575.

[38] Winkelmann, L. and R. Winkelmann, Happiness and Unemployment: A Panel Data Analysis for Germany. Konjunkturpolitik, 1995. 41(4): p. 293-307.

[39] Winkelmann, R., Unemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2009. 10(4): p. 421-430.

 

Evidence Statement: Age matters. Wellbeing may decline further for young people, particularly if the spell of unemployment is longer.’

[40] Dockery, A.M., The Happiness of Young Australians: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Labour Market Experience. Economic Record, 2005. 81(255): p. 322-335.

[41] Dooley, D. and J. Prause, Effect of unemployment on school leavers’ self-esteem. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 1995. 68(3): p. 177-192.

[42] Goldsmith, A.H. and J.R. Veum, Unemployment, joblessness, psychological well-being… (Cover story). Journal of Socio-Economics, 1997. 26(2): p. 133.

[43] Hammarström, A. and U. Janlert, Nervous and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of youth unemployment—selection or exposure? Journal of Adolescence, 1997. 20(3): p. 293-305.

[44] Montgomery, S.M., et al., Unemployment pre-dates symptoms of depression and anxiety resulting in medical consultation in young men. International Journal of Epidemiology, 1999. 28(1): p. 95-100.

[45] Mossakowski, K.N., The influence of past unemployment duration on symptoms of depression among young women and men in the United States. Am J Public Health, 2009. 99(10): p. 1826-32.

 

Evidence Statement: Effects on others. Unemployment not only affects the person who lost their job, it also reduces the wellbeing of their spouse, especially female spouses.

[46] Luhmann, M., et al., Honey, I got fired! A longitudinal dyadic analysis of the effect of unemployment on life satisfaction in couples. J Pers Soc Psychol, 2014. 107(1): p. 163-80.

[47] Marcus, J., The effect of unemployment on the mental health of spouses – Evidence from plant closures in Germany. Journal of Health Economics, 2013. 32(3): p. 546-558.

[48] Winkelmann, L. and R. Winkelmann, Happiness and Unemployment: A Panel Data Analysis for Germany. Konjunkturpolitik, 1995. 41(4): p. 293-307.

 

Evidence Statement: Re-employment leads to higher wellbeing

[49] Ferreira, J.A., et al., Configurations of unemployment, reemployment, and psychological well-being: A longitudinal study of unemployed individuals in Portugal. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2015. 91: p. 54-64.

[50]      Flint, E., et al. Do labour market status transitions predict changes in psychological well-being? J Epidemiol Community Health, 2013. 67(9): p. 796-802.

[51] Grun, C., W. Hauser, and T. Rhein, Is Any Job Better Than No Job? Life Satisfaction and Re-employment. Journal of Labor Research, 2010. 31(3): p. 285-306.

[52] Llena-Nozal, A., The Effect of Work Status and Working Conditions on Mental Health in Four OECD Countries. National Institute Economic Review, 2009(209): p. 72-87.

[53] Nordenmark, M. and M. Strandh, Towards a sociological understanding of mental wellbeing among the unemployed: the role of economic and psychosocial factors. Sociology, 1999. 33(3): p. 577-597.

[54] Reims, N. and U. Bauer, Labour Market Status and Well-Being in the Context of Return to Work After Vocational Rehabilitation in Germany. J Occup Rehabil, 2015. 25(3): p. 543-56.

[55] Strandh, M., Different exit routes from unemployment and their impact on mental well-being: The role of the economic situation and the predictability of the life course. Work Employment and Society, 2000. 14(3): p. 459-479.

[56] Strandh, M., et al., Unemployment, gender and mental health: the role of the gender regime. Sociology of Health & Illness, 2013. 35(5): p. 649-665.

 

Evidence: what mitigates the damaging effect of unemployment?

Family and social connections

[57] Milner, A., et al., The role of social support in protecting mental health when employed and unemployed: A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 12 annual waves of the HILDA cohort. Soc Sci Med, 2016. 153: p. 20-26.

[58] Winkelmann, R., Unemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2009. 10(4): p. 421-430.

Living in an area with high unemployment:

[59] Clark, A.E., Unemployment as a Social Norm: Psychological Evidence from Panel Data. Journal of Labor Economics, 2003. 21(2): p. 323-351

[60]       Flint, E., et al. Do local unemployment rates modify the effect of individual labour market status on psychological distress? Health & Place, 2013. 23: p. 1-8.

[61] Gathergood, J., An instrumental variable approach to unemployment, psychological health and social norm effects. Health Econ, 2013. 22(6): p. 643-54.

Personality:

[62] Boyce, C.J., A.M. Wood, and G.D.A. Brown, The dark side of conscientiousness: Conscientious people experience greater drops in life satisfaction following unemployment. Journal of Research in Personality, 2010. 44(4): p. 535-539.

[63] Hahn, E., et al., Coping With Unemployment: The Impact of Unemployment Duration and Personality on Trajectories of Life Satisfaction. European Journal of Personality, 2015. 29(6): p. 635-646.

Employability:

[64] Green, F., Unpacking the misery multiplier: how employability modifies the impacts of unemployment and job insecurity on life satisfaction and mental health. J Health Econ, 2011. 30(2): p. 265-76.

Social capital:

[65] Winkelmann, R., Unemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2009. 10(4): p. 421-430.